ScientificCalc Help Calcinator™ ScientificCalc is a powerful algebraic calculator that offers full expression input using natural mathematical notation in a simple, intuitive, and convenient tool. The ScientificCalc has the following handy features: Full expression input Natural mathematical notation Full support for imaginary and complex numbers 6 shared memory locations Ablity to use memory locations as variables in complex calculations Ability to store full expressions in memory locations for later recall Recall of the last 20 operations 44 common scientific and math constants Input from keyboard devices The ScientificCalc uses an "algebraic" input style. This means that the full input expression is shown prior to hitting the = key. This is distinct from the typical calculator which only shows the input values one at a time. The ScientificCalc displays expressions in natural mathematical notation using conventional superscript exponents and radical signs for square and cube roots. This is more intuitive and less error prone that typical computer-style calculators. Entering Expressions The ScientificCalc features Smart Entry. This feature gives context-dependent behavior to the major key functions. This feature has an error prevention function which disables a key when it would enter an invalid expression and a convenience function which anticipates the user's intent. This is particularly handy on mobile devices that are easy to mis-key Examples: + - * / and exponent operators are prevented from being entered in succession Decimal points are only allowed once in a numeric value Functions are entered outside an expression when not followed by an operator ex: sin(π/3) Functions are entered following an operator ex: 1+sin( The Clr() key removes outside functions ex: sin(π/3)→ Clr() → π/3 Keyboard Shortcuts The following keyboard shortcuts are supported on keyboard-equipped devices: 0-9 + - × / ( ) [] {} ^ . Enter → View Backpace → Del left-right cursor keys → expression editing a-z A-Z keys → a-z A-Z variables Functions: sin( cos( ...etc. Special characters: i : imaginary constant i e : Euler constant e pi : π Recalling History and Editing The ScientificCalc has a history function which saves the last 20 operations. These can be recalled using the up-down arrow keys at the top of the display. History locations are numbered 0-19 where 0 is the current session. New entries are rolled into the history when a successful calculation is completed. The ScientificCalc has an expression editing function that is accessed by the left-right arrow keys at the top of the display or the left-right cursor keys. The editing function allows the user to change or correct either the current expression or expressions recalled from the history function. Math Notation The Calcinator™ Suite offers true math notation using traditional symbols and conventions. Any multiplier preceding a variable or constant is treated as a term such as 2π or 4i. Square and cube roots are displayed with √ radical notation. Powers are displayed as superscripts such as xn. Also, there is an  x  n  division mode that is enabled in the Setup page which offers either conventional x-over-n division notation or computer-style x/n division notation (default). Precedence Expressions are evaluated from left to right. Math operators have a precedence value that determines which operations are performed first. Operator precedence from first to last: () → Operations inside parentheses xn → Exponents −x → Negative numbers: −42 = −(42) xN → Terms such as 2π: 2π/4i = (2π)/(4i) ∠ → angle operator (see complex numbers) / → Divide × → Multiply +− → Add/Subtract Domain Calculations can be performed in either the real number domain ℝ or the complex number domain ℂ. The selection can be made via the ℂ/ℝ button on the main menu. The domain selection button is only shown on the 'wide' or 'landscape' view. This setting in persistent and will remember its selection until changed. Complex Numbers Calcinator™ has full support for complex and imaginary numbers and their operations when in the Complex domain mode. By default, complex numbers are represented in rectangular form a+bi, where i is the imaginary constant. Polar forms are also supported using the notation A∠B where A is the magnitude and B is the angle. The Settings menu selects which form is displayed by default as a calculation result. Angles can be represented in Radians (default), Degrees, or Gradians which are also selected in the Settings menu. Expressions can be entered using either rectangular or polar form and they can be mixed together. The result will be converted to form selected in the Settings menu. This allows easy conversions between rectangular and polar forms. Math Functions Functions such as sin(x) and roots such as √x are processed computer-style, which means that the operand is delimited by parentheses. When placing a function in the expression, the left parenthesis will be inserted, but the right parenthesis must be placed manually to terminate the function after the operand is inserted. Inserting a new function will display →) as a reminder that there are unterminated functions or parentheses. Included functions: sin - sine cos - cosine tan - tangent sec - secant csc -cosecant cot - cotangent asin - arcsine or inverse sine acos - arccosine or inverse cosine atan - arctangent or inverse tangent asec - arcsecant or inverse secant acsc -arccosecant or inverse cosecant acot - arccotangent or inverse cotangent sinh - hyperbolic sine cosh - hyperbolic cosine tanh - hyperbolic tangent asinh - hyperbolic arcsine acosh - hyperbolic arccosine atanh -hyperbolic arctangent log - log to base 10 logn - log to base n ln - log to base e ℮n - exp exp - ℮n ! - factorial (Lanczos approximation) Γ - gamma function (Lanczos approximation) |x| - absolute value Re - real component of complex number Im - imaginary component of complex number x - complex conjugate arg - complex argument or phase √ - square root ³√ - cube root n√ - nth root erf - error function (real numbers only) erfc - complementary error function (real numbers only) Φ - standard normal CDF (real numbers only) φ - standard normal PDF (real numbers only) rnd - randomized function rou - round to nearest integer ⌊x⌋ - floor, nearest lesser integer ⌈x⌉ - ceiling, nearest greater integer Advanced Functions can be toggled using the Func key. Status and Error Codes The following symbols are used to represent calculator result conditions: ≠ - invalid calculation or invalid input ∞ - accumulator overflow or infinite result -∞ - negative accumulator overflow or negative infinite result →) - missing right parenthesis (← - missing left parenthesis The status window at the bottom displays the following information: Cplx - Rect or Angle complex number mode (use Setup to select) DEG/RAD/GRAD - the angle units used for trig functions (use Setup to select) d→16f - the decimal precision of the calculation (use Setup to select) Mx - active memory location x=1-6 Contents of active memory location Shared Memory M1-M6 MS (Memory Store) and MR (Memory Recall) are used to store or recall values from six memory locations M1-M6. To store a value to memory, select the field using the associated button and press MS. These values can be shared with all of the other Calcinator™ Web Apps. Partial expressions can be stored into memory and be recalled into other expressions as an editing aid.